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Mental Models Iatrogenics: Why Intervention Often Leads to Worse Outcomes
Reading Time: 4 minutes

Iatrogenics iswhen atreatment causes more harmthan benefit. As iatros means healer in Greek, the word means “caused by the healer” or “brought by the healer.” Healer, in this sense, need not mean doctor, but anyone interveningto solve a problem. For example, it could be a thought leader, a CEO, a government, or a coalition of the willing. Nassim Taleb calls these people inventionistas.Often these people come armed with solutions to solve the first order consequences of a decision but create worse second and subsequent order consequences. Luckily, for them at least, they’re never around to see the train wreck they created.


Today we use the phrase iatrogenics to refer to any effect resulting from an intervention in excess of gain.Some examples are easier recognized thanothers. For example, when the negative effects are immediate and visible and appearto be a direct cause-effect, we can reasonably conclude that the intervention caused the negative effect. However, if thenegative effects are delayed or could be explained by multiple causes, we are less likely to conclude the intervention caused them.


A great example of iatrogenics in action isthe death of George Washington. In 1799,as he lay dying from a bacterial infection, his well-intentioned doctors aidedor hastened his death using the standard treatment at the time, which was bloodletting (at least five pints, according to Ron Chernow ).

More controversial examples exist as well, such as military interventions in the Middle East. In these cases, linkages are clouded by narratives, moral arguments, and clear cause and impact. (A great book to read on this is Perilous Interventions .) And when thelinkagesbetween cause and effect are murky, the very people who caused the harm are often thepeople rewarded for improving the situation.

The key lessonhere is that ifwe are to intervene, we need a solid idea of not only the benefits of our interventions but also the harm we may cause—the good selling cheap online Pollini pointed heel pumps online sale online free shipping perfect sale pictures clearance amazing price wmunlHw
Otherwise , ow will we know when, despite our best intentions, we cause more harm than we do good?

The key lessonhere is that ifwe are to intervene, we need a solid idea of not only the benefits of our interventions but also the harm we may cause—the second and subsequent order consequences .

Intervening when we have no idea of the break-even point is “naive interventionism,” a phrase first brought to my attention by Nassim Taleb. In adidas Courtset Womens Suede Sneakers cheap sale best store to get cheap 100% original sale online shop shop offer discount low cost rT3ewE
, Taleb writes:

» Providing a great LinkedIn recommendation

Providing a great LinkedIn recommendation

At some point in your career you may be asked to write a LinkedIn recommendation. The request could come from anyone – a manager, co-worker, or even a service provider. You could currently be engaging with this person daily, or it could be a previous relationship . If you decide to provide a LinkedIn recommendation, you will want to do a great job for them. Here’s how you can do just that.

What is a LinkedIn recommendation?

A LinkedIn recommendation is a statement commending a connection you have on LinkedIn. It is visible to anyone that views a LinkedIn profile and is also visible on your own page; you can both wiki cheap online shopping online Marsèll contrast toe loafers ASB2X
and provide recommendations on LinkedIn. At any stage, you may choose to hide a recommendation given to you, and if you are unhappy with what has been written, you can always request a revision.

If you can’t do a good job, turn them down

You have probably worked with some amazing people in your career; if they asked, it would be easy to give them a glowing LinkedIn recommendation. However, there may be people you don’t feel that way about. If you cannot give them an excellent recommendation, then please don’t write anything at all!

Every recommendation you provide should be honest and truthful. Your name is on it, and you don’t want to be recommending poor performers as it reflects badly back on you.

Know the end goal

You need to know what the end goal is for the person making the request. You should be providing different messages depending on their needs. Keep in mind that the stakes could be pretty high for them. If they don’t give you an idea of what they want you to focus on in your recommendation, make sure to ask. It will help focus your message and help them shine.

What to include in your LinkedIn Recommendation 1. Your relationship to each other

Provide context for your professional relationship, including reporting relationship. Make sure that you mention the role (or roles) they held, as this will give more validity to your message. Ensure you include details that will answer when, where, how long, doing what, and most importantly , why you are qualified to give this recommendation for this person.

Keep in mind a LinkedIn recommendation is easily verified. Whoever reads the recommendation can visit the profile of whoever gave it, and determine your creditability for themselves.

2. Standout abilities or achievements

Tell a story. Sing their praises. Mention memorable achievements and the impact they had on you, or the company. Focus your recommendation on their end goal while clearly outlining their abilities and achievements.

Based on their initial evaluation, patients were divided into those with non-significant CAD, those with significant CAD by the above criteria, those with AMI on admission, and those with a history of MI (labeled NO CAD, CAD, AMI and OLD MI, respectively). Follow-up evaluation was conducted by telephone interviews and by chart review by personnel blinded to the gene expression data, between 1 and 5 years (mean 2.4 years) after blood sampling, in order to determine all cause death, non-fatal MI, and cardiovascular death. Records were also linked to the Social Security Death Index and State of Georgia records. Cardiovascular death was defined as death attributable to an ischemic cardiovascular cause (fatal MI, stroke, peripheral arterial disease) or sudden death due to an unknown cause [ 15 ]. Medical records were accessed or requested to validate all self-reported events including MI, which was defined using standard international criteria for diagnosis.

Gene expression data have been deposited at the Gene Expression Omnibus archive under accession number [GEO:GSE49925]. Peripheral blood samples were collected immediately prior to angiography and after overnight fasting, and stored in Paxgene tubes (QIAGEN, San Diego, CA, USA) at -80°C. Microarray analysis of transcript abundance was performed by hybridization of dye-labeled RNA to Illumina HT-12 bead arrays containing probes for all human reference genes. Hybridizations for the discovery phase were performed by Expression Analysis (Durham, NC, USA) and for the replication phase by HudsonAlpha (Huntsville, AL, USA). Average bead intensity values were exported from the Illumina GenomeStudio, log base 2 transformed, and 14,343 probes that are consistently detected above background in multiple gene expression datasets that we have analyzed [ 17 , discount looking for Rick Owens Hiking sandals discount genuine big sale cheap tumblr SCrdit3u0
19 ] were retained for subsequent analyses. Of these probes, 232 were missing in the replication phase analysis using an updated version of the Illumina HT-12 arrays, resulting in 14,111 probes analyzed in both phases.

Two modes of data normalization were pursued in order to confirm robustness of all conclusions [ JORDAN Retro 1 High Zip Sneaker Sizes 610 new cheap online 1SUA943
]. The primary analysis method reported in the main text employed the Supervised Normalization of Microarray (SNM) algorithm [ Prada Brown 70 burnished leather loafers buy cheap for nice clearance wiki comfortable cheap price comfortable online h30ZR
, Dorateymur White Petrol Leather Loafers low cost sale online cheap sale Inexpensive uUbdxtDx
]. Secondary analyses were performed by linear mixed modeling at the transcript level [ 23 ]. All downstream analysis of variance and regressions on traits was performed with JMP Genomics v5 (SAS Institute, Cary, NC, USA). Normalization was initially performed independently on the two phases to ensure independent replication, and subsequently the data were combined for meta-analysis. The variance components attributable to body mass index (BMI), gender, ethnicity, CAD status and technical plate effects are shown in Additional file 1 .